While regular brushing and flossing can minimize plaque (the white film on the surface of the teeth), most people have hard to reach areas that are frequently missed with routine home care. Plaque that remains on the teeth over time will calcify and become a hard deposit (calculus) that can no longer be removed at home. These hard deposits are located and removed when you have your teeth professionally cleaned.
If plaque and calculus are not removed, it causes the gum tissue to become inflamed (indicated by bleeding) and can eventually cause the bone that holds the teeth in place to go away. When this happens, periodontal disease has set in, and you may begin to develop additional health concerns.